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From the History Books

Was William Shakespeare Really a Gun Writer?

by Garry James   |  October 26th, 2011 11

William ShakespeareTo today’s average theatergoer, it should come as no surprise that firearms and the entertainment business are virtually joined at the hip. When you think back on it, it almost seems that motion pictures might never have made it past the Kinetoscope stage if it were not for the frequent depiction of promiscuous gunplay.

But movies were only following a long tradition of the plot/prop use of firearms going back virtually to the invention of guns themselves, and no early playwright took greater advantage of them than William Shakespeare.

Now he was by no means the first to mention guns in his works. Geoffrey Chaucer, in the poem “House of Fame” (1380,) wrote about early small arms, and even described the “infernal” sulfurous smell of black powder:

As swift as pellet out of gone

Whan fyre is in the poudre ronne

And swiche a smoke gan out-wende….

And hit stank as the pit of helle….

Tradition has it artillery was first seen at the Battle of Crecy in 1346, and only some 30 years later Chaucer felt comfortable that his audience was familiar enough with firearms to include a mention in them in his verse. One must remember, in the 14th century, information didn’t travel all that fast when it did at all, and most individuals’ experience was limited to areas not too far outside the environs of their local villages.

Many authors before and during the 17th century knew about guns and employed them as props – Christopher Marlowe in “The Tragicall Life and Death of Dr. Faustus” (1604), for instance. But Shakespeare, with his prodigious output, really took advantage of them – cannons and other artillery are cited in a number of plays such as “Macbeth,”  “Hamlet,” “The Tempest,”  “The Life and Death of King John” and “As You Like It.”

Now, historical authenticity was not necessarily all that important, or even properly understood on the Elizabethan stage. For instance, in “King John,” cannons are described as being used close to two centuries before they ever appeared on the battlefield. In “Henry IV, Part 1,” Sir John Falstaff is noted as having a pistol (actually it turns out to be a bottle of sack – sherry – in his gun case) at the Battle of Shrewsbury, which took place well before the first pistol was ever invented.

In “Henry IV” and “Henry V,” there is a character, Pistol, who in the latter play while displaying his ire describes the working of an early flint-and-steel handgun – “Pistol’s cock is up and flashing fire will follow.” – again, well before such things had been devised. I remember having an instructor in my Shakespeare class in college try and ascribe a bawdy connotation to that brief passage. When I tried to explain to her that Shakespeare was actually describing a flintlock pistol – I say flintlock, because a wheelock’s cock , or “dog,” has to be in the down position to fire the piece – I was chastised, ridiculed and told I didn’t know what I was talking about.

Academia hasn’t changed much in 45 years. Now, I will own that Shakespeare might have meant it as a double entendre, but if you check the bellicose manner in which the line was supposed to be delivered, I rather doubt it.

Appropriately enough, Shakespeare’s greatest warlike play, “Henry V,” probably has the greatest firearms references, most famously when Chorus describes siege guns:

And the nimble gunner

With linstock now the devilish cannon touches

And down goes all before them.

Here, we have proper historical context as artillery was used during Henry’s 1415 campaign in France, both at the Siege of Harfleur and the Battle of Agincourt. The Bard got it right. In fact, there is a stage direction telling the special effects guys to shoot off chambers – small pot-shaped mortars – as Chorus finishes his speech.

These chambers were responsible for one of the more famous firearms episodes in Shakespearean history. During a performance of “Henry VIII” on June 29, 1613, stagehands, following the instruction in Act 1, Scene IV, “Drum and trumpet, chambers discharged,” set off their pyrotechnics, which were located in the “heavens” of the Globe Theatre. They caught the thatch roof on fire and started a conflagration that in less than two hours burned the entire playhouse down – fortunately with no loss of life.

As far as I know, as a result of the accident, there was no hue and cry for more gun regulations – they just built another theatre and blithely continued on as they had been before. Will knew a good thing when he had it.

Garry James

About Garry James

Garry was born in Los Angeles, CA, in 1944. At age 11 he was given a Civil War vintage Remington revolver, and this began his passion for firearms. After graduating from college with a degree in journalism, he joined the U.S. Army, eventually becoming an Ordnance ammunition officer. After discharge, he joined the staff of "Guns & Ammo" magazine in 1971, where he eventually served as Editor for several years. As well as acting as Arms & Armour Expert for the auction firm of Sotheby Parke Bernet, Garry has been a technical advisor for films and television, including the popular series, “Story of the Gun,” "Tales of the Gun"(for which he was series advisor,) "Mail Call," ”Unsolved History,” “Lock n’ Load,” “American Rifleman Television,” and “Top Shot.” Garry is currently Senior Editor at “Guns & Ammo,” and a contributor to “Guns & Ammo Television” and other Intermedia Outdoors TV productions. He is acknowledged as one of the world’s foremost experts on the history and the technology of firearms, and has a first-hand knowledge of everything from medieval hand-cannons to the most modern full-autos.

  • http://www.facebook.com/ArmorInsulation Paul House

    That is an awesome bit of research! Loved the read!

  • Al Lahn

    I remember reading that line in Henry V! I remember laughing pretty hard and thinking, "Great double entendre!"

    • Garry James

      I questioned my own doubts about that for years, and I could still be wrong. But after repeated readings of the play, even though Pistol was a low comedic character, the context , as well as who he is delivering the lines to (his enemy, Corporal Nym) leads me to take it pretty much at face value. If he was saying it to Hostess, now that's another matter. Then again, maybe I'm just terminally naive.

  • davehardy

    The point being, of course, not whether the allusion to Pistol's firearm was a double-entendre, but that political correctness and much bruiting about of sex, race and power were just getting geared up nearly a half-century ago and are now so commonplace in our institutions of "higher" learning as to be accepted conventional wisdom, period, no dissent allowed. I speak as one former graduate student/teaching assistant of that system, where to walk about as a straight married Caucasian male was to tread on eggshells.

    • Garry James

      Dave:
      Lord know, the Elizabethan period was far from prudish, but as far as I am concerned you have conclusively settled the matter. Wonder if we'll hear from academia. I can't imagine too many current English Lit profs read the "Guns & Ammo" website.

      • Cindy Munson

        Alas Goode Garry, many within the folded robes of academia doth in deed labour behind the forge of Vulcan…..

      • Go Big Blue!

        Not sure a principal from Iowa counts as academia, but I plan on showing this to my English teachers.

  • JRB

    Bravo, Garry, bravo!

  • MMcQuown

    I think the double entendre is the right reading. There are certainly plenty of them in the work. Take Hamlet's scene with Ophelia where he asks if he might lie between her legs, then accuses her of having a dirty mind by asking her if she thought he meant 'country matters.'

  • Garry James

    Then again, as Sigmund Freud supposedly said, "sometimes a cigar is just a cigar."

  • Rik Getty

    Mr. James,
    This is completely off-topic but I'm having difficulty in finding your email address on the gunsandammo.com website. I just got the December issue of my favorite mag and a reader poses a question to you in Gun Room concerning hi-cap mags for a Win model 100. I inherited a model 100 from my father-in-law who used it for many years on deer in the badlands of western North Dakota. After viewing many internet comments I was finally able to take it apart. I needed an extra mag and Wisner's Inc of Adna, WA .. wisnersinc.com makes new reproductions. If anyone would know about hi-cap mags for the model 100 it would be them. However, I doubt that any have been made for commercial purposes. I don't know if this will help the reader but I thought I would pass this on to you. I really enjoy the mag and the great group of writers/editors you guys have.
    Rik Getty
    Boulder, CO

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